Construction of DC Machines (Motor & Generator) With Diagrams
Construction of DC Machine
A Direct Current (DC) machine is an energy conversion device. It converts electrical energy to mechanical while working as a motor and the mechanical energy to electrical energy while working as the generator. Hence, it is known as electromechanical energy conversion device. It consists of stator and rotor. The stator is the assembly of main parts like the yoke, main poles, pole shoe, inter pole windings etc., and the rotor is the assembly of the armature, armature winding, commutator fan etc.
Major Parts of DC Machine Construction
The yoke is the outer cover of the machine supporting and protecting the internal parts. It is made of low reluctance ’ material like silicon steel or cast iron, Since, it has to carry the magnetic flux i.e., to provide the closed path for the flux produced through the poles.
Pole Core and Pole Shoe
Pole core is generally a solid material and pole shoe is a laminated one in small machines, but the pole shoe and pole core both are laminated made of annealed steel in modern days. The purpose of the pole core is to provide flux and to support the field windings, Whereas the pole shoe is stretched so as to provide uniform air gap along the armature core and also to provide uniform flux distribution in the air gap.
Brush and Brush Holders
Brushes are the structures placed on the rotating commutator through which the unidirectional current is to be collected. Generally, it is made of carbon, which can give smooth surface to the contacts so as to reduce the spark and wear and tear of the commutator bars. These are fixed to the stator core (yoke) by means of brush holders.
The field windings are wound initially on a wooden former and then installed into the pole cOre. These are generally made of low resistivity materials like copper or aluminum. There are two ways of connecting the field winding to the armature in case of the self-excited machine. They can be connected in series or shunt. If it is connected in series less numbered turns with larger cross-sectional conductors are used. If it is connected in shunt, the winding would be of large turns, whose cross-section is less, so as to withstand for the whole supply voltage.