Types of Losses in a Transformer – Working & Efficiency

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LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER
LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER

LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER

No machine in the world is 100% efficient, it always have some losses. Same is true for Transformer. Losses which occurs in transformer are:

Types of Losses in a Transformer

1. Copper Loss
2. Iron Loss

Since the transformer is a static machine , so transformer does not have any mechanical losses like friction losses, air friction losses, stray losses etc.

COPPER LOSS

Copper loss ( I²R losses ) takes place due to the flow of current in  primary and secondary winding. We know that winding has some resistance and when current flows through them, heat is produced. Therefore, some energy is lost as heat energy.

Total Copper Loss in Transformer = Primary Winding Copper loss + Secondary Winding copper loss.

Pc = (I₁)² . R₁ + (I₂)² . R₂

“Copper loss varies as the square of the load current”

IRON / CORE LOSS

Iron loss or core loss occurs in the magnetic core of the transformer. Iron loss is the sum of hysteresis loss and eddy current loss.

Core loss = Hysteresis + Eddy Current Loss

 Hysteresis Loss

Hysteresis loss in the transformer occurs due to the reversal of magnetism in the core of transformer. Whenever the core of transformer is subjected to the Alternating Magnetic field , direction of magnetization in core changes after every half cycle. Energy is consumed for changing the direction of magnetization in core, this is dissipated as heat loss.

Hysteresis Loss is equal to the area under B-H curve (hysteresis curve).

hysteresis curve of transformer
HYSTERESIS CURVE OF TRANSFORMER

“Hysteresis loss depends upon the voltage and frequency”.

 Eddy Current Loss

When the magnetic field is applied to the core, an emf is induced in the core as per “Faraday’s Law of Electro-magnetic Induction“. This induced emf circulates the current in the core. This current is called eddy current (I) and it is of no use and produces the loss (I²R loss) in the magnetic material, where R is the resistance of core. This loss is called eddy current loss.

“Eddy Current Loss is independent of the frequency “

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