LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER
No machine in the world is 100% efficient, it always have some losses. Same is true for Transformer. Losses which occurs in transformer are:
Types of Losses in a Transformer
1. Copper Loss
2. Iron Loss
Since the transformer is a static machine , so transformer does not have any mechanical losses like friction losses, air friction losses, stray losses etc.
Copper loss ( I²R losses ) takes place due to the flow of current in primary and secondary winding. We know that winding has some resistance and when current flows through them, heat is produced. Therefore, some energy is lost as heat energy.
Total Copper Loss in Transformer = Primary Winding Copper loss + Secondary Winding copper loss.
Pc = (I₁)² . R₁ + (I₂)² . R₂
“Copper loss varies as the square of the load current”
IRON / CORE LOSS
Core loss = Hysteresis + Eddy Current Loss
Hysteresis loss in the transformer occurs due to the reversal of magnetism in the core of transformer. Whenever the core of transformer is subjected to the Alternating Magnetic field , direction of magnetization in core changes after every half cycle. Energy is consumed for changing the direction of magnetization in core, this is dissipated as heat loss.
Hysteresis Loss is equal to the area under B-H curve (hysteresis curve).
|HYSTERESIS CURVE OF TRANSFORMER|