# Power Factor: Improvement & Correction Methods | It’s Calculation

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### Power Factor, It’s Calculation, Power Factor Improvement Method ### What Is Electrical Power Factor?

#### The cosine of the angle between voltage and current in an a.c. the circuit is known as power factor. In an a.c. circuit, there is generally a phase difference φ between voltage and current. The term cos φ is called the power factor of the circuit. If the circuit is inductive, the current lags behind the voltage and the power factor are referred to as lagging. However, in a capacitive circuit, current leads the voltage and power factor is said to be leading. ### Power Triangle

#### The following points may be noted form the power triangle : #### (i) The apparent power in an a.c. the circuit has two components viz., active and reactive power at right angles to each other.

OB² = OA² + AB²
or (apparent power)² = (active power)² + (reactive power)²

### Disadvantages of Low Power Factor

#### factor. It is clear from above that for fixed power and voltage, the load current is inversely proportional to the power factor. Lower the power factor, higher is the load current and vice-versa. A power factor less than unity results in the following disadvantages :

### Causes of Low Power Factor

#### (iii) The load on the power system is varying; being high during morning and evening and low at other times. During low load period, the supply voltage is increased which increases the magnetization current. This results in the decreased power factor. 