# Most Important Formulas on Variable Loads Every Power Engineer Should Know

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## Formulas on Variable Loads Every Power Engineer

7. #### Plant use factor

It is defined as the average of all loads that occur on a power station for a given period of time. Mathematically Average load formula can be linked by the following

• #### Yearly average load = Units generated in year / 8760 hours (hours in year)

It is the ratio of total energy (KWh) used in the billing period divided by the possible total energy used within the period if used at the peak demand (KW) during the entire period. Demand Load Factor is useful in qualifying the benefits of demand control and battery energy storage strategies.

### Generated units

Each generating unit comprises a generator, a turbine, and its ancillary equipment. Turbines are made of a series of blades connected to an axis, which is in turn connected to the generator.
Units generated = LF * Maximum demand * time

### Diversity factor (DF)

Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of the sum of the maximum demands of the various part of a system to the coincident maximum demand of the whole system

### Plant capacity factor

It is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible energy that could have been produced during a given period.

### Reserve Capacity

Reserve capacity is a backup energy generation capacity that is used by the electric grid in the occurrence of unexpected fault such as the unavailability of a power plant. Energy storage systems have the ability to provide this service and are used to offset or reduce costs incurred for generation of reserve capacity.