Table of Contents
Formulas on Variable Loads Every Power Engineer

Average load (A.L)

Load factor (LF)

Generated units

Diversity factor (DF)

Plant capacity factor

Reserve Capacity

Plant use factor
Average load (A.L)
It is defined as the average of all loads that occur on a power station for a given period of time. Mathematically Average load formula can be linked by the following
Average load (AL) = No of units generated/Time Interval (in hours)

Daily average load = Units generated in a day / 24 hours

Monthly average load = Units generated in month / 720 hours (hours in month)

Yearly average load = Units generated in year / 8760 hours (hours in year)
Load factor (LF)
It is the ratio of total energy (KWh) used in the billing period divided by the possible total energy used within the period if used at the peak demand (KW) during the entire period. Demand Load Factor is useful in qualifying the benefits of demand control and battery energy storage strategies.
Load factor = Average Load/Maximum demand
LF = (AL * t) / (Max demand * t) = Units generated / (Max demand * t)
Generated units
Units generated = Average load * time
Diversity factor (DF)
Diversity factor is defined as the ratio of the sum of the maximum demands of the various part of a system to the coincident maximum demand of the whole system
Diversity factor = Sum of individual max demand / Max. demand on the power station
The diversity factor can be equal or greater than 1.
Plant capacity factor
It is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible energy that could have been produced during a given period.
Plant capacity factor (PCF) = Actual energy produced / Max energy that could have been produced

PCF = (Average demand * time)/(Plant capacity / time)

PCF = Average demand / Plant capacity