Measuring Instruments Required for the Installation of Solar Systems

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Solar systems must require the measuring instruments to provide various readings to the user.In this article we are going to introduce the instruments which are used for measuring purposes in solar systems.Solar systems are commonly made up of many devices like Charge controllers,Solar Panels,Inverters,Batteries etc.To assemble these devices,wire is used with a specific diagram.In the process of installation of Solar systems,Protection Devices as well as Measuring Instruments are also used to protect all the system installed.The following are the measuring instruments which are used and installed in Solar Systems.

Pyranometer

Pyranometers are used to measure the radiation energy of solar systems from the entire hemisphere.This meter has a wide range of its applications in climate-research,solar-thermal,agriculture,Photovoltaic research and many other development applications.

A pyranometer is used to measure broadband solar irradiance on a planner surface and as a sensor to measure the solar radiation flux density(W/m2)from a view of 180 degrees.

Usage

Pyranometers are commonly used in meteorology,solar energy studies,climatology.these meters are installed in many meteorological stations and can be seen easily in meterological stations.These meters are installed horizontal and next to solar panels and mounted with the sensor surface in the plane of the panel.

Explanation

The range of solar radiation spectrum is approximately from 300nm to 2800nm.These meters cover that spectrum with a spectral sensitivity that is as flat as possible.To measure the irradiance of PV panel,hit the meter’s sensor perpendicular to the to the surface when sun is at horizon.Then the pyranometer will provide the directional response which will be near to its ideal characteristics.

 Voltmeter

A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure the electric potential difference between two points in any electric circuit.Voltmeter consists of its two types,Analog and Digital Voltmeter.Analog voltmeters move the pointer across a scale with respect to the voltage of the device or circuit while the Digital Voltmeters give the numerical display of the voltages of the circuit or the device on a screen by using analog to digital converter.

Voltmeters are made in a wide range of its styles.A meters which are permanently mounted in a panel are always used to provide the value of the fixed apparatus or of a fixed device.Portable instruments are used to measure the current,resistance,voltages in the form of multimeters which are the standard testing instruments for the electrical and electronics work.

Analog Voltmeters have an accuracy of a few percent of its full scale and are used with the fraction of volt to several volts.Digital Voltmeters are made with high accuracy.these meters are better than 1%.Specially test instruments have higher accuracies with lab instruments.Meters which are used in amplifiers can measure tiny voltages of very small amount.

Ampere meters

Current is a measure of the rate of flow of electrons in a circuit.It is measured in the unit of Ampere called “Amp” and is denoted by (A).To measure the current of any circuit,connect the ampere meter in series and it will provide the rating.Ampere meters are always connected in series with the circuit so that all the electrons flowing through the circuit also have to go through the meter.It is very difficult to measure the current as compared to voltage or resistance.

When an ammeter is connected  in series with a circuit,it doesnot drop voltages as current goes through it.It acts like a piece of wire which consists of very little resistancefrom one test probe to other.If ammeter is placed in parallel of the circuit,it will act like a short circuit across the terminals and a surge will damage the meter.

Ohm meter

An Ohmmeter  is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance(opposition of an electric current).Micro Ohmmeters can  measure low amount of resistance whereas Mega Ohmmeters can measure high amount of resistance.The unit of measurement for resistance is ohm(Ω).

Watt meter

Watt meter is an instrument which is used to measure the electric power in watts of any electric circuit.Electromagnetic  watt meters are used for measurement of frequencies.A modern electronic wattmeter samples the voltage and current thousands of times a second. Wattmeters provide readings in RMS  current,VA,power,power factor and kilowatt hours.The reading is displayed on the screen  of the device. Wattmeters vary considerably in correctly calculating energy consumptions especially when real power is much lower than VA.Watt meters consists of two types named analog and digital.Analog meters cannot provide the exact values or observations whereas digital meters provide the exact value with no error.

Tong Tester

Tong tester is an electric  meter used in electrical and electronics engineering.It consists of two jaws which open to allow clamping around an electrical conductor. These type of meters allows to measure the electric current of the conductor without making of physical contacts.Tong testers aare also called current clamp and this clamp are used to read the magnitude of a sinusoidal current.by using this meter a large amount of current can be measured very easily rather the current is alternating or direct.These typese of meters consists of two types:Analog and Digital current clamp.Analog meters have low accuracy whereas digital meters  consists of high accuracies.

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