Battery Working Principle And Its Types: How does a Battery Work?

Battery Working Principle And Its Types


Batteries are the devices which consists of electrochemical cells used to provide powers to different electric circuits. These electric circuits consume electricity to operate. These circuits maybe a machine, device, toy or many other devices like these flashlights, cameras, smartphones, generators etc.

Working principle:

A battery always used to provide DC electric supply. These cannot be operated on AC supplies and these can be charged and reused and these cannot be charged and can be used only one time. Batteries consists of two terminals one is cathode and the other is anode. The cathode terminal is called the positive terminal of the battery and the anode terminal is called the negative terminal of the batteries current flows through the positive terminal to the negative terminal. Batteries consists of electrolytes which are the plates of the varied materials like sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphate. These materials have the capacity to conduct electricity. When batteries are connected to the circuits the electrolytes start moving there ions and a chemical reaction is completed on both terminals and starts delivering energy to the connected circuit. This all process take place in a second of time and starts delivering power to the connected circuit.

Types of batteries:

There are many types of batteries.The major types of batteries are as follows:

  • Primary Batteries

  • Secondary Batteries

Primary Batteries:

Primary batteries are the batteries which are used once and cannot be used again. Their chemical reaction is not reversible and these batteries cannot be recharged. These batteries are commonly used in portable devices and in the devices which take minor current like alarm clocks, calculators, small toys etc. These batteries have higher energy densities as compared to the rechargeable batteries. Alkaline batteries and zinc-carbon batteries are the primary batteries.

Primary Batteries
Primary Batteries

Secondary Batteries:

Secondary batteries are the batteries which are used again and again and can be recharged. Their chemical reaction is reversible and these batteries can be recharged easily. These batteries are provided in discharged state and must be charged for first use. These batteries are recharged by the devices called chargers. The most important type of secondary batteries are the lead acid batteries which are used in vehicles, automotive etc. These types of batteries are used in a wide range such as in generators, solar systems for backup storage of energy, in houses for uninterruptable power supplies etc. Secondary batteries include valve regulated lead acid batteries(VRLA), dry cells, lithium ion batteries.

Secondary batteries
Secondary batteries



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