Armature Reaction In DC Machines
MNA And GNA
EMF is induced in the armature conductors when they cut the magnetic field lines. There is an axis (or, you may say, a plane) along which armature conductors move parallel to the flux lines and, hence, they do not cut the flux lines while on that plane. MNA (Magnetic Neutral Axis) may be defined as the axis along which no emf is generated in the armature conductors as they move parallel to the flux lines. Brushes are always placed along the MNA because reversal of current in the armature conductors takes place along this axis.
The effect of armature reaction is well illustrated in the figure below.
The second figure in the above image shows armature flux lines due to the armature current. Field poles are de-energised.
The Adverse Effects Of Armature Reaction:
- Armature reaction weakens the main flux. In case of a dc generator, weakening of the main flux reduces the generated voltage.
- Armature reaction distorts the main flux, hence the position of M.N.A. gets shifted (M.N.A. is perpendicular to the flux lines of main field flux). Brushes should be placed on the M.N.A., otherwise, it will lead to sparking at the surface of brushes. So, due to armature reaction, it is hard to determine the exact position of the MNA
For a loaded dc generator, MNA will be shifted in the direction of the rotation. On the other hand, for a loaded dc motor, MNA will be shifted in the direction opposite to that of the rotation.
How To Reduce Armature Reaction?
Usually, no special efforts are taken for small machines (up to few kilowatts) to reduce the armature reaction. But for large DC machines, compensating winding and interpoles are used to get rid of the ill effects of armature reaction.
Now we know that the armature reaction is due to the presence of armature flux. Armature flux is produced due to the current flowing in armature conductors. Now, if we place another winding in close proximity of the armature winding and if it carries the same current but in the opposite direction as that of the armature current, then this will nullify the armature field. Such an additional winding is called as compensating winding and it is placed on the pole faces. Compensating winding is connected in series with the armature winding in such a way that it carries the current in opposite direction.