Ammonium Nitrate Formula, Preparation Method, Chemical Properties


Understanding Ammonium Nitrate: Formula, Preparation, Properties, and Uses

Ammonium nitrate is a highly soluble and versatile chemical compound used in a variety of applications, ranging from fertilizers to pyrotechnics. This article will explore the ammonium nitrate formula, its preparation method, chemical properties, and the various uses of this compound.

Formula of Ammonium Nitrate

The chemical formula of ammonium nitrate is NH4NO3. It is composed of one nitrogen atom, four hydrogen atoms, and three oxygen atoms. This compound is a salt that forms when ammonia reacts with nitric acid.

Structural Formula

This is the structural formula of the ammonium nitrate:

Ammonium Nitrate Formula

Chemical Formula

The chemical formula of the ammonium nitrate is NH4NO3.

Preparation of Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate can be prepared through several methods, including the reaction between ammonia and nitric acid, as well as by the neutralization of nitric acid with ammonia. The reaction between nitric acid and ammonia can be expressed as follows:

HNO3 + NH3 → NH4NO3

The reaction between ammonium nitrate and nitric acid can be performed at room temperature, and the resulting product is a white, crystalline powder.

Physical Properties

Melting point 169.6C
Boiling point 210C
Molecular weight 80.043g/mol
Density 1.72g/cm3
Solubility in water 1024g/100ml(100C)
Appearance White crystalline solid
Crystal structure trigonal

Chemical Properties of Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is a highly soluble compound, with a solubility of approximately 34 g/100 mL of water at 20°C. It is also highly reactive, with a high level of oxygen content, making it a potent oxidizer. Additionally, ammonium nitrate is a weak acid, with a pKa of approximately 3.5.

Uses of Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate has a wide range of uses, including:

  • Agriculture: One of the most common uses of ammonium nitrate is as a fertilizer. It is a readily available source of nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for plant growth.
  • Mining: Ammonium nitrate is used in the mining industry as a component in explosive materials, due to its high level of oxygen and ability to burn rapidly.
  • Pyrotechnics: Ammonium nitrate is also used in the production of fireworks, as it releases a large amount of heat and gas when it burns.
  • Medical: Ammonium nitrate has been used in the medical field as a component in some cold remedies and as a treatment for some medical conditions.
  • Industrial: Ammonium nitrate is also used in a variety of industrial applications, including the production of nitric acid, as a component in certain types of dyes, and in the production of certain types of plastics.


ammonium nitrate is a versatile chemical compound with a wide range of uses. Its high solubility, reactivity, and oxygen content make it a valuable component in agriculture, mining, pyrotechnics, medical, and industrial applications.

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